■ Bone resorption in human acquired cholesteatoma is still a confusing mystery.
■ The concept that Ki-67 could predict cholesteatoma aggressiveness was supported.
■ Cytokeratin 17 could be considered as a favoring marker for cholesteatoma invasiveness.
■ This knowledge is necessary for proper timing of surgery and preventing bad outcomes.
■ Albuminuria has been known as an indicator of endothelial damge in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.
■ The presence of albuminuria was associated with a modest effect on hearing thresholds regardless of presence of DM (P<0.05).
■ DM without albuminuria was also associated with high hearing thresholds compared with the normal population, but the effect was modest (P<0.05).
■ DM participants with albuminuria has significantly more hearing loss compared with the other patients (P<0.05).
■ Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-1031 and TNFβ+252 gene polymorphisms did not render any significant associations in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
■ TNFα-1031 gene polymorphisms was significantly associated with CRS participants with atopy.
■ New formulation for nasal provocation testing (NPT) has been developed.
■ Intranasal Allerkin (Lofarma) house dust mite (HDM) extract caused significant change of nose.
■ Allerkin HDM extract can be a useful provocative agent in NPT.
■ The viability of the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy affects postoperative hypoparathyroidism.
■ The viabilities of all 4 glands were prospectively evaluated by their visual grading from 0 (normal) to 3 (severely impaired).
■ The scores were frequently high in patients with transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism.
■ The visual scoring might be a good indicator of postoperative hypoparathyroidism.
■ The patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) had varied voice onset time.
■ The BVFP patients might control air pressure to produce 3-typed stop consonants.
■ The patients used intraoral air pressure and flow control to distinguish voiceless stop.
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