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Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology > Accepted Articles
doi: https://doi.org/10.21053/ceo.2024.00024    [Accepted]
Perinatal Risk Factors in Relation to Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis in Children and Adolescents
Se Hwan Hwang1 , Hyesoo Shin1 , Gulnaz Stybayeva2 , Do Hyun Kim3
1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
3Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence  Do Hyun Kim ,Tel: +82-2-2258-6112, Fax: +82-2-535-1354, Email: dohyuni9292@naver.com
Received: January 31, 2024; Revised: March 29, 2024   Accepted: April 5, 2024.  Published online: April 8, 2024.
ABSTRACT
Objectives
To evaluate the associations between birth-related exposures and postnasal factors and risk for allergic rhinitis and asthma in children and adolescents.
Methods
We conducted a comprehensive search of five literature databases up until May 2023. To estimate the associations between birth-related exposures (birth weight, mode of delivery, prematurity, sex, maternal age, and parental history of allergy) and postnatal factors (birth order, number of siblings, exclusive, and duration of breastfeeding) and allergic disease, we calculated pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. In addition, we performed subgroup analyses according to allergic disease, birth order, number of siblings, and parental history of allergy. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.
Results
This meta-analysis included 31 studies with 218,899 patients. Among the birth-related exposures, low birth weight, maternal age, and prematurity (<37 weeks) showed no significant associations with risk for asthma or allergic rhinitis in childhood or adolescence. On the other hand, male sex, family history of allergy, and cesarean section were related to higher risk for asthma or allergic rhinitis. Among postnatal factors, exclusive breastfeeding, long duration (>6 months) of breastfeeding, birth order second or later, and presence of sibling(s) showed preventive effects against allergic disease in offspring.
Conclusion
The risks for allergic rhinitis and asthma were higher in male patients delivered by cesarean section and with a family history of allergy. By contrast, exclusive and long duration (>6 months) breastfeeding and the presence of sibling(s) reduced the risk of developing respiratory allergic disease.
Keywords: Adolescent; Asthma; Child; Rhinitis, Allergic; Risk factors
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